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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-18

Frequency and determinants of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction in men with newly detected type 2 diabetes

1 Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Department of Biochemistry, Medical College for Women and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child and Mother Health, Matuail, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4 Department of Cardiac Surgery, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shahjada Selim
Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bjem.bjem_2_22

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Introduction: Hypogonadism in males is characterized by low serum testosterone (T) levels together with clinical symptoms and is more common in diabetes mellitus (DM). Association between DM and hypogonadism has been studied in different populations but is not clearly known in Bangladeshi population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the frequency and determinants of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with newly detected type 2 DM diabetes (T2DM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 1940 newly T2DM male patients (age: 42.57 ± 7.4 years; body mass index [kg/m2]: 26 ± 5.1; mean ± standard deviation) was carried out in the Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, to see hypogonadism. Measurement of serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) was measured by chemiluminescent technology. Results: Among hypogonadal subjects, according to calculated Free Testosterone (cFT) and Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) criteria, the frequency of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was 80% which, on the basis of TT and ADAM criteria, was 92.5%. There was no significant difference for hypogonadism among either the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) categories (P = 0.23) or age groups (P = 0.9). Hypogonadal and eugonadal groups significantly differed both according to TT and ADAM (81.5% vs. 43.4%, P = 0.01) and cFT and ADAM (93.3% vs. 47.7%, P ≤ 0.001) criteria for ED. There was a significant difference between the groups for SHBG (21.7 ± 11.6 vs. 30.71 ± 22, P = 0.05) by TT and ADAM criteria. Similarly, cFT and ADAM criteria also revealed a statistically significant difference for SHBG (38.04 ± 19.90 vs. 25.28 ± 19.37 nmol/l, P = 0.03) and total cholesterol (211.40 ± 44.7 vs. 191.3 ± 32.64 mg/dl, P = 0.04). However, in both the groups, LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, 2 h after 75 g glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein did not differ significantly. cFT significantly correlated with age (r = ‒0.3503, P = 001) and SHBG (r = ‒0.37, P ≤ 0.01) whereas TT with SHBG (r = 0.58, P = 0.01). By multiple regression, ED and SHBG were significant predictors for hypogonadism (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion: It was concluded that a significant number of newly detected male T2DM subjects have symptoms of hypogonadism judged on the basis of TT, cFT, and ADAM scores. Poor glycemic control may affect gonadal and erectile functions. This aspect should be considered while diagnosing male subjects as T2DM.

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